Mobile Communication Evolution and Technologies
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Mobile Communication Evolution and Technologies

 

In this document, we are going to briefly introduce Mobile Communication Evolution and Technologies used, starting from 1G to 4G.

1G

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)

is an analog mobile cell phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas on October 13, 1983, Israel in 1986, Australia in 1987, Singapore in 1988, and Pakistan in 1990. It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s. As of February 18, 2008, carriers in the United States were no longer required to support AMPS and companies such as AT&T and Verizon have discontinued this service permanently. AMPS was discontinued in Australia in September 2000, in Pakistan by October 2004, and Brazil by 2010.

 

Radiocom 2000 

is the French mobile phone network launched in 1986 which progressively replaced the analogue network “public correspondence”. It is classified in the category of first-generation mobiles (1G).

Operating under the 400 MHz frequency band, the network uses digital technology for analog signaling and modulation for voice. Frequencies are allocated dynamically as needed.

RTMI (Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato)

was the first mobile communication service in Italy, started in 1973. It operated on the 160 MHz frequency band and was used by a few people working in the public sector (public administrations and defense officials). In the 1980s, the Radio Telephone Mobile (RTM) emerged, which operated on the 450 MHz frequency band and attracted 100,000 customers.

Radio Telephone Network C (German: Funktelefonnetz-C, abbreviated as C-Netz),

was a first generation analog cellular phone system deployed and operated in Germany (at first West Germany) by DeTeMobil (formerly of Deutsche Bundespost Telekom, currently Deutsche Telekom). It utilized the C450 standard and was the third and last update of a series of analog mobile phone systems used primarily within Germany, superseding the B-Netz and the A-Netz before it. It has been decommissioned, replaced by both the newer D-Netz (GSM-900) and E-Netz (GSM-1800) systems.
 

Total Access Communication System (TACS) and ETACS 

are mostly-obsolete variants of Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) which was announced as the choice for the first two UK national cellular systems in Feb 1983, less than a year after the UK government announced the T&Cs for the two competing mobile phone networks in June 1982

 

NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony)

is the first fully automatic cellular phone system. It was specified by Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) and opened for service on 1 October 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion and heavy requirements of the manual mobile phone networks: ARP (150 MHz) in Finland, MTD (450 MHz) in Sweden and Denmark, and OLT in Norway.

NMT is based on analog technology (first generation or 1G) and two variants exist: NMT-450 and NMT-900. The numbers indicate the frequency bands used. NMT-900 was introduced in 1986 and carries more channels than the older NMT-450 network.

2G

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Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) 

was the first ever CDMA-based digital cellular technology. It was developed by Qualcomm and later adopted as a standard by the Telecommunications Industry Association in TIA/EIA/IS-95 release published in 1995. The proprietary name for IS-95 is cdmaOne.

IS-54 and IS-136 

are second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS), and a further development of the North-American 1G mobile system AMPS. It was once prevalent throughout the Americas, particularly in the United States and Canada since the first commercial network was deployed in 1993. D-AMPS is considered end-of-life, and existing networks have mostly been replaced by GSM/GPRS or CDMA2000 technologies.
 

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications,

originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, first deployed in Finland in December 1991. As of 2014, it has become the de facto global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 219 countries and territories.

 

Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)

was a 2G mobile telecommunications standard used exclusively in Japan

 

2.5G

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CDMA IS-95B

In addition to IS-95A, In 1999, IS-95B added a 64 Kbps packet capability, enabling data to be transmitted to a CDMA cell phone. IS-95B was superseded by CDMA2000.

 

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system’s global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies. It is now maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

 

High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD),

is an enhancement to Circuit Switched Data (CSD), the original data transmission mechanism of the GSM mobile phone system, four to six times faster than GSM, with data rates up to 57.6 kbit/s.

 

I-mode 

is a mobile internet (as opposed to wireless internet) service popular in Japan

 

3G

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CDMA2000

(also known as C2K or IMT Multi‑Carrier (IMT‑MC)) is a family of 3G  mobile technology standards for sending voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. It is developed by 3GPP2 as a backward-compatible successor to second-generation cdmaOne (IS-95) set of standards and used especially in North America and South Korea.

 

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE

(also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM. EDGE is considered a pre-3G radio technology and is part of ITU‘s 3G definition. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003 – initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States.

 

W-CDMA or WCDMA 

(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), along with UMTS-FDDUTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks. It supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can also carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access.

 

TD-SCDMA 

(time division synchronous code division multiple access) is a mobile telephone standard for wireless network operators who want to move from a second generation (2G) wireless network to a third-generation (3G) one. Supporting data transmission at speeds up to 2 Mbps, TD-SCDMA combines support for both circuit-switched data, such as speech or video, and also packet-switched data from the Internet. The standard combines time division multiple access (TDMA) with an adaptive, synchronous-mode code division multiple access (CDMA) component.

 

3.5G

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Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DOEVDO)

is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. EV-DO is an evolution of the CDMA2000 (IS-2000) standard that supports high data rates and can be deployed alongside a wireless carrier’s voice services. It uses advanced multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time division multiplexing (TDM) to maximize throughput. It is a part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world particularly those previously employing CDMA networks. It is also used on the Globalstar satellite phone network.

 

Evolved EDGE

continues in Release 7 of the 3GPP standard providing reduced latency and more than doubled performance e.g. to complement High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA). Peak bit-rates of up to 1 Mbit/s and typical bit-rates of 400 kbit/s can be expected.

 

High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA

is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using the WCDMA protocols. A further improved 3GPP standard, Evolved High-Speed Packet Access (also known as HSPA+), was released late in 2008 with subsequent worldwide adoption beginning in 2010. The newer standard allows bit-rates to reach as high as 337 Mbit/s in the downlink and 34 Mbit/s in the uplink. However, these speeds are rarely achieved in practice.

In telecommunication

Long-Term Evolution (LTE

is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements. The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE frequencies and bands used in different countries mean that only multi-band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported.

Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, or HSPA+, or HSPA(Plus), or HSPAP 

is a technical standard for wireless, broadband telecommunication. It is the second phase of HSPA which has been introduced in 3GPP release 7 and is further improved in later 3GPP releases. HSPA+ can achieve data rates of up to 42.2 Mbit/s
 

LTE Advanced 

is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. It was formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009 as meeting the requirements of the IMT-Advanced standard and was standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in March 2011 as 3GPP Release 10.

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